Now a days, enormous number of news articles are reported and disseminated on the web. Extracting important information from the news articles to reduce the reading time is the essential issue. Gist generation is an important, difficult and interesting Natural Language Processing (NLP) problem as it requires to mine the essential content words from an article and also to generate a gist that expresses the summary of an article. In ideal case, summary of an article need to generate directly from the understanding of an article. But, developing such type of NLP systems are not possible. This book introduces the importance of the Short Summary Generation. It presents the different preprocessing techniques for improving the performance of the methods. It discusses the various approaches for Content Word Selection from the article and compares the performance of the methods with various measures such as precision, recall and F-measures. The empirical evaluations are carried out for topic sentence identification. The Hybrid approach is presented for Short Summary generation using topic sentences.
Since 1930s Class II malocclusion benefits from functional appliances. These appliances alter the arrangement of various muscle groups to correct the position of mandible to grow out of the skeletal disharmony. These appliances have been broadly divided into removable and fixed functional appliances. Fixed functional appliances also known as "noncompliant Class II correctors" have gained significant ground in the last few years. With them in use, the treatment duration is reduced by 6 months. They are divided into rigid, flexible, and hybrid appliances. Rigid fixed functional appliances restrict the mandibular movements and flexible fixed functional appliances have frequency of breakage to a greater extent. To overcome these drawbacks, hybrid fixed functional (HFF) appliances have come into play. HFF appliances offer the advantages of previous ones, thus eliminating their pitfall. Recent advances have also lead to the improvisation with the use of HFF appliances. This book provides the gist of different HFF appliances till date with their considerations in use, mode of action, bio mechanical effects, and advances in this field.
Biomimetics is the formation, structure, or function of biologically produced substances and materials and biological mechanisms and processes especially for the purpose of synthesizing similar products by artificial mechanisms which mimic natural ones in dentistry. The main principle of biomimetics is by a hard-tissue bond, to return all prepared dental tissues to full function which will permit functional stresses to allowing the final functional biologic and esthetic result of whole crown.Two major perspectives of biomimetics can be achieved by a purist perspective in which center of concentration is to recreate the biological tissues with stem cell therapy, pulp implantation, injectable scaffold delivery,gene therapy and bioengineered tooth.A descriptive perspective in which center of concentration is using materials that result in a mimicked biological effect like Feldspathic ceramics, hybrid composites and glass ionomer cement. This book gives a gist of the biomimetic usage in dentistry for patient's oral healthcare needs.
The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite integration technique. Moreover, alternative schemes, such as the finite-element, the finitevolume, the multiresolution time-domain methods and many others, are presented, while particular attention is drawn to hybrid approaches. To this aim, the general aspects for the correct implementation of the previous algorithms are also exemplified. At the end of every section, an elaborate reference on the prominent pros and possible cons, always in the light of EMC modeling, assists the reader to retrieve the gist of each formulation and decide on his/her best possible selection according to the problem under investigation.